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# Lesson 1: Digital Systems Design 1 - Analyzing and Synthesizing Combinational Logic Circuits

## Lesson 1: Digital Systems Design 1 - Analyzing and Synthesizing Combinational Logic Circuits

**Switching Circuits**

Switching functions can be implemented using simple switches.

In digital electronic circuits, transistors are used as simple switches in

circuits very similar those which follow. The functions NOT, AND and OR can be

easily implemented with two simple switches

In the case of the AND function, the two switches have to be in

series with each other; in the case of the OR function, the two switches have to

be connected in parallel. For the NOT function, the switch is connected in

parallel with the output. NAND and NOR gates can be constructed in a similar

way.

Switching circuits for these gates are already in the text book. Here we can see

the Switch Equivalents of some laws and theorems of Boolean Algebra.

To convert a gate circuit to a Boolean expression, label each gate

output with a Boolean sub-expression corresponding to the gates' input signals,

until a final expression is reached at the last gate.

**Designing Logic Circuits**

*F =*

**A BC**orA | B | C | BC | A BC |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Relay Logic CircuitsRelay Logic Circuits

To convert a Boolean expression to a relay logic circuit, evaluate

the expression using standard order of operations: multiplication before

addition, and operations within parentheses before anything else.

**IC Logic Circuits***Start with a Boolean Function**Minimize it in literal form**Substitute graphic symbols for the operators**Show all signals**Interconnect the gates**Clean up or simplify*

To convert a Boolean expression to a gate circuit, evaluate the expression

using standard order of operations: multiplication before addition, and

operations within parentheses before anything else.

*Example:*

Step 1:Step 1:

*Boolean*

*Function*

*F=*

*AB BC(B C)*

*Step*

*2**: Minimize it*

*F= AB BC(B C)*

*= AB BBC*

*BCC*

*= AB BC BC*

*= AB BC*

*F = B(A*

*C)*

*Step 3, 4, 5,*

*6:**Substitute graphic symbols, Show signals, Interconnect*

*gates, and Clean up*

Begin with the sub-expression "A C", which is an OR gate:

The next step in evaluating the expression "B(A C)" is to multiply (AND gate)

the signal B by the output of the previous gate (A C)

This circuit is much simpler than the original, having only two logic gates instead of five. Such component reduction

results in higher operating speed (less delay time from input signal transition to output signal transition), less power consumption, less cost, and greater

reliability.

Demorgan Equivalent Symbols and

Equivalent signal lines

*Examples:*

**Compressing Truth Tables and Karnaugh**

**maps**

**Why compress Truth**

**Tables**Reduction in the hardware of a logic circuit can be achieved by simplifying its Boolean expression(s). Main Reasons to compress truth tables/reduce logic are:

- Reduction in the number of gates or ICs and interconnection wires/tracks.
- Smaller physical space (in PCB or IC) is occupied by the design.
- Higher circuit speed.
- Lower power consumption and heat generated.
- Easier testing and finding fault.
- Lower cost.
- Improved reliability of the circuit due to lower gate count as well as

number of interconnections.

**Compression**

**Techniques**Besides K-maps, discussed in the previous chapter and also below, here are some other compression techniques.

*Map Entered*

*Variable (MEV)*

*Tabular*

*Methods*

*Quine-McClusky (Q-M) Method (Suitable for*

computer implementation.

Partially heuristic method where optimal solution is

not guaranteed.)*Petricks Algorithm**(A modified*

Quine-McClusky method.)

**Advantage of Quine-McClusky over**

K-mapsK-maps

- It can be computerized
- It can handle functions of more than six variables

**Quine-McClusky method**

(Overview)(Overview)

- Given the minterms of a function
- Find all prime implicants (steps 1 and 2)
- Partition minterms into groups according to the number of 1’s
- Exhaustively search for prime implicants

- Partition minterms into groups according to the number of 1’s

- Construct a prime implicant chart
- Select the minimum number of prime implicants

**Karnaugh**

**maps**A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a pictorial

method used to minimize Boolean expressions without having to use Boolean

algebra theorems and equation manipulations. A K-map can be thought of as a

special version of a truth table.

Using a K-map, expressions with two to

four variables are easily minimized. Expressions with five to six variables are

more difficult but achievable, and expressions with seven or more variables are

extremely difficult (if not impossible) to minimize using a

K-map.

*Characteristics:*- K-map represents the truth table or canonical forms.
- Its squares or cells are labeled such that adjacent squares differ by one

variable change only. - K-map squares are filled with 1s or 0s either from the truth table output

values or minterms (maxterms). - SOP expression for the output is obtained by ORing the squares containing 1s

and then simplifying by looping. - POS expression for the output is obtained by ANDing the squares containing

0s and then simplifying by looping.

Looping a pair of adjacent 1s in the K

map eliminates the variable that appears in complemented or un-complemented

form.

Looping a quad of adjacent 1s in the K map eliminates the two variables that appear in both complemented and un-complemented forms.

Looping an octet of adjacent 1s in the K map eliminates the three variables that appear in both complemented and un-complemented forms.

When a variable appears in both

complemented an un-complemented form within the loop, that variable is

eliminated from the expression. Variables that are the same for all squares of

the loop must appear in the final expression.

Don’t care conditions are the input

conditions of a logic circuit for which there are no specified outputs. Make

output for don’t care condition to

*X*. This

will produce best K-map looping and hence simplest output

expression.

- Construct the K map.
- Place the ones and
*X*in in the squares

corresponding to the 1s and*X*on the truth

table. - Place 0s in all other spaces.
- Loop any octet including
*X*. - Loop any quad that contains one or more 1, but not all that have not already

been used. - Look for the ones that are adjacent to only one other 1 or
*X*and loop these pairs together. At least one 1 in this

pair, should be an un-looped 1. - Loop any pairs to include any ones that have not already been used.
- Form the OR sum of all the terms generated by each loop.

**Glitches**

A hazard is a condition in a logically

correct digital circuit or computer program that may lead to a logically

incorrect output. A Glitch is a momentary change of signal at the

outputs.

These can be useful while designing pulse

shaping circuits. But they may give incorrect results and unwanted switching at

the outputs. These occur because delay paths in the circuit experience different

propagation delays.

If logic "makes a decision" while output

is unstable or hazard output controls asynchronous inputs. (These respond

immediately to changes rather than waiting for a synchronizing signal called a

clock)

*Solutions:*

- Wait until signals are stable (by using a clock)
- Add redundant terms.
- Never use circuits with asynchronous inputs
- Design hazard-free circuits.

Static

hazards: Condition where the output should stay constant, but it

doesn't

Static 1

hazard: In some circuits, output should be a constant 1. But when one

input is changed, the output drops to 0 and then recovers to 1. This cannot

occur in a POS implementation.

Refer to the figure shown above. Say

there are two sets of input combinations to a digital circuit, S1(eg. 010), and

S2(eg. 011), different in only one variable, such that, both inputs force the

output to be a '1'(high). When we switch from one input combination to another,

the output changes momentarily to a '0'(low). This is known as static 1

hazard.

Static 0

hazard: In some circuits, output should be a constant 0. But when one

input is changed, the output rises to 1 and then drops back to 0. This cannot

occur in a SOP implementation.

Say there are two sets of input

combinations to a digital circuit, S1(eg. 010), and S2(eg. 011), different in

only one variable, such that, both inputs force the output to be a '0'(low).

When we switch from one input combination to another, the output changes

momentarily to a '1'(high). This is known as static 0 hazard.

If more than one input variable changes

"simultaneously" there is no way to guarantee that such glitches will not

occur.

*Example: Static 1*

Hazard detection and prevention.

Hazard detection and prevention.

Consider

*F*

*= A’B*

AC

AC

Consider the input transitions as shown in the

figure.

Due to the finite propagation

delay of the gates, there is a momentary '0' in the output, as shown in the

diagram below.

**Detection of Static 1 Hazards:**

A static one hazard can be detected by observing the products used

for the function on a K-map. If any two logically adjacent cells with a '1'

output are not covered by a common product or implicant, a static hazard can

occur when a single input change moves from one cell to the other.

Now,

Plot A’B AC in the KMAP

BC^{A} | 0 | 1 | ||||||||

00 |
| |||||||||

01 | ||||||||||

11 | ||||||||||

10 |

-----

Minterm 3(011) is covered by product A'B and minterm 7(111) is covered by

product AC. There is no product which covers them both. See figure below:

A static hazard can also be detected algebraically. If only the distributive

law is used to convert the SOP form to a POS form and the resulting POS form

contain the sum of a variable and its complement, then this is an indication of

a static 1 hazard. Although algebraically the sum of a variable and its

complement is always '1', due to different delay paths in the circuit it might

appear that for a short interval both the variable and its complement are 0. In

the example above,

f(A,B,C)=A'B AC = (A'B A)(A'B C)=(A' A)(B A)(A' C)(B C)

has a sum (A' A). Due to variable delays in different branches of the

circuit, this sum may be effectively zero for very short time intervals. If all

other sums are '1', then the output should stay '1', but since they are all

ANDed with (A' A), its momentary zero would cause an output glitch which would

be a static 1 hazard.

**Prevention of Static 1**

Hazards:

Hazards:

A static 1 hazard an be prevented by adding a product terms so

that all pairs of logically adjacent cells with a '1' output have at least one

common product covering them. This can be accomplished by using all prime

implicants in the SOP form rather than using a minimized SOP form. In the

example above the hazard free form will be f(A,B,C) = A'B AC BC where the

product BC has been added to cover both minterms 3 and 7. Note also that the

hazard condition occurred with transitions between ABC = 111 and 011, and this

product output does not change during this transition.

Adding

BC

Here is the waveform for the output

*F*after

adding the

*AND*

*Gate*for

*BC*

Which is without any momentary transition at the change of the input

signals.

A SOP form with AND-OR implementation can never have a static '0' hazard. If

the output is a zero both before and after a single variable change, then all

products must be '0' both before and after the single variable change, so no

input to the OR gate will change and ho hazard can occur. Everything stated

above for the two level AND-OR implementation is also true for the two level

NAND-NAND implementation. For a large number of variables it is possible to have

two logically adjacent minterms with '1' output that are each covered by

multiple products but not both covered by a common product. This will still

cause a hazard condition. The hazard will only be avoided by having a common

product covering the pair, not just by having multiple products cover each

minterm.

*Example: Static 0 Hazard detection and*

prevention.

prevention.

A Static 0 hazard may occur in a two level product of sums (POS)

implementation.

Consider an OR-AND (POS) implementation with the following

characteristics:

à For the

current input conditions only one OR gate has a logic '0' output. This causes

the output of the AND to be '0'.

à

A single input variable changes which "simultaneously" causes the first

OR gate output to a logic '1' and causes another OR gate output to go to a logic

'0'.

If the first OR gate changes before the second, the AND will have two '1'

inputs for a short time and an output glitch will occur.

For example, consider the function

*F = (A B)(A' C)*

(Which is same as the example in static 1 Hazard, but in POS form:

A'B BC)

implemented in this minimized POS form. In this case U=(A B) and V=(A' C) so

*F=(U)(V)*. When the inputs change from ABC=100

to ABC=000, a glitch as described above can occur. If it does not occur on this

transition, it will occur on the reverse transition from ABC=000 to ABC=100.

**Detection and Prevention of Static 0**

Hazards:

Hazards:

A static zero hazard can be detected by observing the sums used for the

function on a k-map. If any two logically adjacent cells with a '0' output are

not covered by a common sum, a static hazard can occur when a single input

change moves from one cell to the other. In the example above, the cells for

maxterms 0 and 4 both contain '0', but maxterm 0 is covered by sum (A B) and

maxterm 4 is covered by sum (A' C) . There is no sum which covers them both.

A static hazard can also be detected algebraically. If only the distributive

law is used to convert the POS form to a SOP form and the resulting SOP form

contains the product of a variable and its complement, then this is an

indication of a static 0 hazard. Although algebraically the product of a

variable and its complement is always '0', due to different delay paths in the

circuit it might appear that for a short interval both the variable and its

complement are 1. In the example above

F = f(A,B,C) = (A B)(A' C) = A(A' C) B(A' C) = AA' AC BA'

BC

has a product (AA'). Due to variable delays in different branches of the

circuit, this product may be effectively one for very short time intervals. If

all other product are '0', then the output should stay '0', but since they are

all ORed with (AA'), its momentary one would cause an output glitch which would

be a static 0 hazard.

**Prevention of Static 0 Hazards:**

A static 0 hazard an be prevented by adding sum terms so that all pairs of

logically adjacent cells with a '0' output have at least one common sum covering

them. This can be accomplished by using all prime implicants in the POS form

rather than using a minimized POS form. In the example above the hazard free

form will be f(A,B,C) = (A B)(A' C)(B C) where the sum (B C) has been added to

cover both maxterms 0 and 4. Note also that the hazard condition occurred with

transitions between ABC = 100 and 000, and this product output does not change

during this transition.

A POS form with OR-AND implementation can never have a static '1' hazard. If

the output is a '1', both before and after a single variable change, then all

sums must be '1' both before and after the single variable change, so no input

to the AND gate will change and no hazard can occur.

Everything stated above for the two level OR-AND implementation is also true

for the two level NOR-NOR implementation. For a large number of variables it is

possible to have two logically adjacent maxterms with '0' output that are each

covered by multiple sums but not both covered by a common sum. This will still

cause a hazard condition. The hazard will only be avoided by having a common sum

covering the pair, not just by having multiple sums cover each maxterm.

**Dynamic hazards**

Just like Static - 0 and Static - 1 can be described from the following

figure,

Dynamic Hazard can be analyzed from these output waveforms.

Dynamic Hazards

Dynamic Hazard due to change in an input causes a triple change in

the output. It occurs only when there are three or more paths between the input

and the network output when the effect of the input change reaches the output at

three different times.

*Sample circuit for Dynamic Hazard:*

Waveforms showing dynamic hazard occurrence.

*A second-order SOP circuit*

that is free of all static hazards in the 1s will be free of all static and

dynamic hazards.

that is free of all static hazards in the 1s will be free of all static and

dynamic hazards.

Example: Develop a Hazard-free

realization for the following excitation map.

WXYZ | 00 | 01 | 11 | 10 | ||||||||||||||||

00 |
| |||||||||||||||||||

01 | ||||||||||||||||||||

11 | ||||||||||||||||||||

10 |

*F=W.*

*Z X.Y.Z W.Y.Z*

**Detection:**There are

two hazards

between 5 and 13

between 11

and 15.

**Prevention:**

Add two more groups to remove

these hazards.

**Functions and Delays**

**Simple**- Can be Single product term
*(A.B)* - Can be Single sum term
*(A B)* - Terms can be in complemented form (
*X.Y.Z,*

X.Y.Z*, X Y Z*)

Decoder - Incorporating Simple Functions

[color=#000080][b][b"][face=times]Designing Circuits with

Decoders

[/face][/font">

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## Lesson 1: Digital Systems Design 2

Example:

Consider a Full Adder

Truth

Table with Carry output and Sum output

We can implement this 3 variable function using 3-8 Decoder

After

DeMorgan's Theorem, the function must contain

connected by electronic fuses. These are general purpose devices that can be

programmed to implement combinational logic, or combinational logic and

sequential state machines. Various benefits are:

The fuses can be programmatically blown to obtain specific circuit

configurations, for different logic.

We will study how to realize logic functions using three types of PLDs. They

differ in the placement of fuses in the AND-OR array.

For a PLA, k < 2

Sequential logic devices also called

registered PLDs are also available.

If multiple

functions, look for common product terms.

Derive PLA

table

Draw PLA

diagram:

Given a group of

functions.

Functions already in minimized

form.

A B, B C, A C, B C, A

Product Terms.

Some PLAs consists of a

programmable AND array (logical product generator), a programmable OR array

(logical sum generator) and also XOR gates (which are used as controllable

inverters).

PROM are devices with fixed AND array (which is a decoder) and

programmable OR array. These have n input lines and m output lines. The AND

array (decoder) generates all 2n possible minterm products of its n inputs

(often referred to as n-to-2n decoder).

2

ROM

=> 2

=>

2

Logic construction of a 32 x

4 ROM

F1(A,B,C) = A.B

B'.C

F2(A,B,C) = (A B' C).(A' B)

F3(A,B,C) = A B.C

First, we convert

each function to canonical SOP form.

F1(A,B,C) = A.B

B'.C

= A.B.C' A.B.C A'.B'.C

A.B'.C

=

F2(A,B,C) =

(A B' C).(A' B)

=

(A B' B).(A' B C').(A' B C)

=

m(0,1,3,6,7)

F3(A,B,C) = A B.C

= A.B'.C'

A.B'.C A.B.C' A.B.C A'.B.C

=

Realizing the above logic functions(F1, F2, and F3) using

PROM(

PAL has programmable AND array and fixed OR array. It is less

general than PLA but easier to manufacture and design. Here the product terms

belonging to different OR gates, cannot be shared.

minimal SOP form.

F1(A,B,C,D) = A'.B'.D' B'.C.D' A'.B.C.D

F2(A,B,C,D)

= A'.B B'.C.D'

F3(A,B,C,D) = A'.B'.D' B'.C'.D' A'.B.C.D

Realizing the above logic functions(F1, F2, and F3)

Integer addition is one of the most important operations in digital computer

systems because the performance of processors is significantly influenced by the

speed of their adders. Arithmetic circuits are excellent examples of

combinational logic design. But doing things fast requires more logic and thus

more space. Here we go through some of the necessary Binary Number

Representations relating to Sign & Magnitude, Ones Complement and Twos

Complement as we design circuits for Binary Addition, i.e. a Full Adder.

Representation of positive numbers is same in most systems. The major

differences are in how negative numbers are represented. There are three major

schemes to repressent negative numbers.

A 4 bit machine word can represent 16

different values (0000, 0001, 0010 .. 1111). Out of these 16 different values,

roughly half are positive and half are negative.

i.e.

and

The

Most Significant bit determines the sign.

The

figure below shows the meaning of all the sixteen values, from 0000 to

1111.

The High order bit(MSB) determines the sign:

whereas the three low order bits determines the magnitude:

0

(000) thru 7 (111)

Using Twos-complement representations,

the addition scheme is much simpler which makes twos complement the most common

choice for integer number systems within digital systems.

The two overflow conditions are

The figure below illustrates these

conditions.

Overflow occurs when carry in to sign

does not equal carry out.

With twos complement numbers, addition is

sufficient.

Sum = A

B

B

Carry = A

Thus the Schematic for the Half-adder

can be designed using an

When we are interested in adding more than two bits, we need a

Full Adder.

Truth Table and K-maps for a Full Adder are as follows.

Thus,

The figure shows, that the standard

approach utilize 6 Gates to implement the Full Adder.

As,

The Full Adder can be designed using two half adders ( 2 x 2

Gates) and an

implementation size to just 5 Gates!

A Cascaded Multi-bit Adder is shown below.

Subtraction can be performed using the above adder with minor

modifications. We can add two numbers using the formula, A B. Similarly, we can

Subtract two numbers using the same formula, but using negative B.

i.e. A - B = A (-B).

= A (2's

complement of B)

thus,

We can Add two numbers using similar equation,

The

Consider a Full Adder

Truth

Table with Carry output and Sum output

A | B | Cin | S | Cout |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

We can implement this 3 variable function using 3-8 Decoder

**Complex**After

DeMorgan's Theorem, the function must contain

- atleast one product term
*(A.B)**AND* - atleast one sum term
*(A B)*

**Programmable Logic Devices***Programmable logic devices (PLD)*are ICs with internal logic gatesconnected by electronic fuses. These are general purpose devices that can be

programmed to implement combinational logic, or combinational logic and

sequential state machines. Various benefits are:

- Instant manufacturing turnaround
- High level of flexibility
- Rapid prototyping
- Ease of design changing
- Low startup costs
- Low financial risk

The fuses can be programmatically blown to obtain specific circuit

configurations, for different logic.

**General structure:**We will study how to realize logic functions using three types of PLDs. They

differ in the placement of fuses in the AND-OR array.

**Programmable Read-only Memory (PROM):**- Has a fixed AND array and programmable fuses for the output OR gates.
- PROM implements Boolean functions in sum of minterms.

**Programmable Array Logic (PAL):**- Has a fused programmable AND array and a fixed OR array.
- The AND gates are programmed to provide the product terms for the Boolean

functions that are logically summed in each OR gate.

**Programmable Logic Array (PLA):**- Most flexible, where both AND and OR arrays can be programmed.
- The product terms in the AND array may be shared by any OR gate to provide

the required sum of products implementation.

For a PLA, k < 2

^{n}.Sequential logic devices also called

registered PLDs are also available.

**Designing a logic circuit using a**

PLAPLA

**Steps Involved:**Given a function or a group of functions.

Minimize

function(s) using any method (K-map, McCluskey, etc). => minimal SOP

form.

Minimize the

number of product terms

Number of

literals is not important.

Check each

function and its complement.

If multiple

functions, look for common product terms.

Derive PLA

table

Draw PLA

diagram:

# of AND

gates = # of distinct product terms

# of OR gates

= # of outputs.

Draw a X for

each connection

*Example:*Given a group of

functions.

*F0 = A B' C'*

F1 = A C' A B

F2 = B' C' A

B

F3 = B' C AF1 = A C' A B

F2 = B' C' A

B

F3 = B' C A

**Step 1:**

Minimize functionsFunctions already in minimized

form.

**Step**

2: Look for common product

terms:2: Look for common product

terms:

A B, B C, A C, B C, A

**Step**

3:PLA table with Shared3:

Product Terms.

Product term | Inputs | Outputs | |||||

| A | B | C | F_{0} | F_{1} | F_{2} | F_{3} |

A B | 1 | 1 | - | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

B C | - | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

A C | 1 | - | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

B C | - | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

A | 1 | - | - | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

**Step 3: Draw**

PLA diagram.Some PLAs consists of a

programmable AND array (logical product generator), a programmable OR array

(logical sum generator) and also XOR gates (which are used as controllable

inverters).

**Designing using a**

PROMPROM

PROM are devices with fixed AND array (which is a decoder) and

programmable OR array. These have n input lines and m output lines. The AND

array (decoder) generates all 2n possible minterm products of its n inputs

(often referred to as n-to-2n decoder).

2

^{n}x mROM

=> 2

^{n}words, each word m bits=>

2

^{n}x m bitsLogic construction of a 32 x

4 ROM

*Example*F1(A,B,C) = A.B

B'.C

F2(A,B,C) = (A B' C).(A' B)

F3(A,B,C) = A B.C

First, we convert

each function to canonical SOP form.

F1(A,B,C) = A.B

B'.C

= A.B.C' A.B.C A'.B'.C

A.B'.C

=

**S**m(1,5,6,7)F2(A,B,C) =

(A B' C).(A' B)

=

(A B' B).(A' B C').(A' B C)

=

**P**M(2,4,5) =**S**m(0,1,3,6,7)

F3(A,B,C) = A B.C

= A.B'.C'

A.B'.C A.B.C' A.B.C A'.B.C

=

**S**m(3,4,5,6,7)Realizing the above logic functions(F1, F2, and F3) using

PROM(

*8 x 3 ROM*)**OR****Designing using a PAL**PAL has programmable AND array and fixed OR array. It is less

general than PLA but easier to manufacture and design. Here the product terms

belonging to different OR gates, cannot be shared.

*Example:*

Here we convert each function tominimal SOP form.

F1(A,B,C,D) = A'.B'.D' B'.C.D' A'.B.C.D

F2(A,B,C,D)

= A'.B B'.C.D'

F3(A,B,C,D) = A'.B'.D' B'.C'.D' A'.B.C.D

Realizing the above logic functions(F1, F2, and F3)

**Binary Addition**Integer addition is one of the most important operations in digital computer

systems because the performance of processors is significantly influenced by the

speed of their adders. Arithmetic circuits are excellent examples of

combinational logic design. But doing things fast requires more logic and thus

more space. Here we go through some of the necessary Binary Number

Representations relating to Sign & Magnitude, Ones Complement and Twos

Complement as we design circuits for Binary Addition, i.e. a Full Adder.

**Negative Numbers**Representation of positive numbers is same in most systems. The major

differences are in how negative numbers are represented. There are three major

schemes to repressent negative numbers.

- sign and magnitude
- ones complement
- twos complement

**Sign and Magnitude Representation**A 4 bit machine word can represent 16

different values (0000, 0001, 0010 .. 1111). Out of these 16 different values,

roughly half are positive and half are negative.

i.e.

**0**100 means 4and

**1**100 means**-**4The

Most Significant bit determines the sign.

The

figure below shows the meaning of all the sixteen values, from 0000 to

1111.

The High order bit(MSB) determines the sign:

**0**= positive (or zero),**1**= negativewhereas the three low order bits determines the magnitude:

0

(000) thru 7 (111)

**Sample**

CalculationsCalculations

result sign bit is the same as the operands' sign when signs differ, operation is subtract, sign of result depends on sign of number with the larger magnitude Thus addition/subtraction of these binary numbers is cumbersome and one must compare magnitudes to determine the sign of result. Ones ComplementOne complement can be evaluated using the following formula N = (2 ^{n} - 1) - Nwhere N is positive number, and N is its negative 1's complement eg. 1's complement of 7 N = (2 ^{n} - 1) - N= (2 ^{4 }- 1) - 7= (10000 - 00001) - 0111 = (1111) - 0111 = 1000 This can also be evaluated by simply computing bit wise complement of 0111, i.e binary representation of 7. 0111 1000 The figure below shows the meaning of all the sixteen values, from 0000 to 1111. Thus subtraction implemented by addition & 1's complement is simpler, but there are two representations of 0 (0000, and 1111). This causes some problems. Twos ComplementThis is like ones complement, except that the result is shifted one position clockwise i.e. 1100 = - 4 If carry-in to sign = carry-out then ignore carry if carry-in differs from carry-out then overflow |

Using Twos-complement representations,

the addition scheme is much simpler which makes twos complement the most common

choice for integer number systems within digital systems.

**Overflow Conditions**The two overflow conditions are

- when we add two positive numbers and get

a negative number or - when we add two negative numbers and get

a positive number.

The figure below illustrates these

conditions.

Overflow occurs when carry in to sign

does not equal carry out.

**Binary Addition using Half**

AdderAdder

With twos complement numbers, addition is

sufficient.

Sum = A

_{i . }B_{i }A_{i .}B

_{i }=A_{i}xorB

_{i}Carry = A

_{i . }B_{i}Thus the Schematic for the Half-adder

can be designed using an

*AND**Gate*and an*XOR**Gate*as follows:**Full Adder**When we are interested in adding more than two bits, we need a

Full Adder.

Truth Table and K-maps for a Full Adder are as follows.

Thus,

**=***S**xor***CI****xor***A***B***=***CO****B****.****CI***A***.****CI***A***.***=***B****CI****.**(*A**)***B***A***.****B**The figure shows, that the standard

approach utilize 6 Gates to implement the Full Adder.

**Alternative Implementation of Full**

AdderAdder

As,

*A***.****B****CI****.**(*A**) =***B***A***.****B***B***.****CI***A***.****CI**The Full Adder can be designed using two half adders ( 2 x 2

Gates) and an

*Or Gate*. This brings down theimplementation size to just 5 Gates!

A Cascaded Multi-bit Adder is shown below.

**Adder / Subtractor Circuit Implementation**Subtraction can be performed using the above adder with minor

modifications. We can add two numbers using the formula, A B. Similarly, we can

Subtract two numbers using the same formula, but using negative B.

i.e. A - B = A (-B).

= A (2's

complement of B)

thus,

**A - B =**

)**A**( B**1**)

We can Add two numbers using similar equation,

**i.e. A B**

==

**A**(**B****0**)The

be added using the Carry input of the Full - Adder block. Consider the following

circuit.*0*or*1*in the above equation canbe added using the Carry input of the Full - Adder block. Consider the following

circuit.

Thus the circuit acts as a Subtractor, when the

when the

We use two ICs, IC 7483 which

is an Adder, and IC 74157, which is a MUX.

One type of circuit where the effect of gate delays is

particularly clear, is an ADDER. The 4-bit adder that we designed and

implemented above is called a ripple-carry adder because the result of an

addition of two bits depends on the carry generated by the addition of the

previous two bits. Thus, the Sum of the most significant bit is only available

after the carry signal has rippled through the adder from the least significant

stage to the most significant stage. This can be easily understood if one

considers the addition of the two 4-bit words: 1 1 1 1

1

In this case, the addition of (1 1 = 10

significant stage causes a carry bit to be generated. This carry bit will

consequently generate another carry bit in the next stage, and so on, until the

final carry-out bit appears at the output. This requires the signal to travel

(ripple) through all the stages of the adder. As a result, the final Sum and

Carry bits will be valid after a considerable delay. The disadvantage of the

above ripple-carry adder is that it can get very slow when one needs to add many

bits. this reduces the maximum frequency as which one can operate this adder.

For fast applications, a better design is required. The carry-look-ahead adder

solves this problem by calculating the carry signals in advance, based on the

input signals. It is based on the fact that a carry signal will be generated in

two cases: (1) when both bits Ai and Bi are 1, or (2) when one of the two bits

is 1 and the carry-in (carry of the previous stage) is 1.

Thus, one can write,

**Whenever the**

high, the Carry input is

*Add/Subtract*signal ishigh, the Carry input is

*1*and the MUX selects*B***input. Thus**

aa

**1**

**is added and***B*

**is selected as second input to the Full-Adder block. Thus**

the circuit realize the functionthe circuit realize the function

*, which is subtraction.*

B

**A**(B

**1**)Thus the circuit acts as a Subtractor, when the

**input is 1.***Add/Subtract***Whenever the**

low(0), the Carry input is

*Add/Subtract*signal islow(0), the Carry input is

*0*and the MUX selects**B****input. Thus**

aa

**0**

**is added and****B****is selected**

as second input to the Full-Adder block. Thus the circuit realize the function

as second input to the Full-Adder block. Thus the circuit realize the function

*, which is addition. Thus the circuit acts as a Adder,***A**(**B****0**)when the

**input is 0.***Add/Subtract*We use two ICs, IC 7483 which

is an Adder, and IC 74157, which is a MUX.

*Circuit*

ImplementationImplementation

**Carry Look-Ahead Adder**One type of circuit where the effect of gate delays is

particularly clear, is an ADDER. The 4-bit adder that we designed and

implemented above is called a ripple-carry adder because the result of an

addition of two bits depends on the carry generated by the addition of the

previous two bits. Thus, the Sum of the most significant bit is only available

after the carry signal has rippled through the adder from the least significant

stage to the most significant stage. This can be easily understood if one

considers the addition of the two 4-bit words: 1 1 1 1

_{2}0 0 01

_{2}, as shown in the following figure:In this case, the addition of (1 1 = 10

_{2}) in the leastsignificant stage causes a carry bit to be generated. This carry bit will

consequently generate another carry bit in the next stage, and so on, until the

final carry-out bit appears at the output. This requires the signal to travel

(ripple) through all the stages of the adder. As a result, the final Sum and

Carry bits will be valid after a considerable delay. The disadvantage of the

above ripple-carry adder is that it can get very slow when one needs to add many

bits. this reduces the maximum frequency as which one can operate this adder.

For fast applications, a better design is required. The carry-look-ahead adder

solves this problem by calculating the carry signals in advance, based on the

input signals. It is based on the fact that a carry signal will be generated in

two cases: (1) when both bits Ai and Bi are 1, or (2) when one of the two bits

is 1 and the carry-in (carry of the previous stage) is 1.

Thus, one can write,

C_{OUT}= C_{i 1}= A_{i }.B_{i }

(A_{i}B_{i}).C_{i}

where "Å" stands for exclusive OR or XOR.

One can write this expression also, as

C

Where,

G

Generate term and

Pi = (A

the Propagate term.

Assuming that the delay through an AND gate is one gate delay and

through an XOR gate is two gate delays, the Propagate and Generate terms only

depend on the input bits and thus will be valid after two and one gate delay,

respectively. If one uses the above expression to calculate the carry signals,

one does not need to wait for the carry to ripple through all the previous

stages to find its proper value. Applying this to a 4-bit adder,

C1 = G0 P0 C0

C2 = G1 P1 C1 = G1 P1 G0 P1 P0 C0

C3 = G2

P2 C2 = G2 P2 G1 P2 P1 G0 P2 P1 P0 C0

C4 = G3 P3 C3 = G3 P3

G2 P3 P2 G1 P3 P2 P1 G0 P3 P2 P1 P0 C0

the carry-out bit, C

available after

calculate the Propagate signal and two delays as a result of the AND and OR

gate). The Sum signal can be calculated as follows:

S

B

Thus, each of the carry equations can be implemented in a

two-level logic network.

The Sum bit will thus be available after two additional gate

delays (due to the XOR gate) or a total of six gate delays after the input

signals A

these delays will be the same independent of the number of bits one needs to

add, in contrast to the ripple counter.

The carry-lookahead adder can be broken up in two modules: (1) the

Partial Full Adder, which generates Si, Pi and Gi as defined by the above

equations; and (2) the Carry Look-ahead Logic, which generates the carry-out

bits according to the above equations. The 4-bit adder can then be built by

using 4 Partial Full Adders and the Carry Look-ahead logic block. The complete

architecture is as follows:

The disadvantage of the carry-lookahead adder is that the carry

logic is getting quite complicated for more than 4 bits. For that reason,

carry-look-ahead adders are usually implemented as 4-bit modules and are used in

a hierarchical structure to realize adders that have multiples of 4 bits.where "Å" stands for exclusive OR or XOR.

One can write this expression also, as

C

_{i 1}= G_{i}P_{i}**.**

C_{i }Where,

G

_{i}= A_{i}**.**B_{i }, theGenerate term and

Pi = (A

_{i}B_{i}) ,the Propagate term.

Assuming that the delay through an AND gate is one gate delay and

through an XOR gate is two gate delays, the Propagate and Generate terms only

depend on the input bits and thus will be valid after two and one gate delay,

respectively. If one uses the above expression to calculate the carry signals,

one does not need to wait for the carry to ripple through all the previous

stages to find its proper value. Applying this to a 4-bit adder,

C1 = G0 P0 C0

C2 = G1 P1 C1 = G1 P1 G0 P1 P0 C0

C3 = G2

P2 C2 = G2 P2 G1 P2 P1 G0 P2 P1 P0 C0

C4 = G3 P3 C3 = G3 P3

G2 P3 P2 G1 P3 P2 P1 G0 P3 P2 P1 P0 C0

the carry-out bit, C

_{i 1}, of the last stage will beavailable after

**four**delays (two gate delays tocalculate the Propagate signal and two delays as a result of the AND and OR

gate). The Sum signal can be calculated as follows:

S

_{i}= A_{i}B

_{i}C_{i }= P_{i}C_{i}Thus, each of the carry equations can be implemented in a

two-level logic network.

The Sum bit will thus be available after two additional gate

delays (due to the XOR gate) or a total of six gate delays after the input

signals A

_{i }and B_{i }have been applied. The advantage is thatthese delays will be the same independent of the number of bits one needs to

add, in contrast to the ripple counter.

The carry-lookahead adder can be broken up in two modules: (1) the

Partial Full Adder, which generates Si, Pi and Gi as defined by the above

equations; and (2) the Carry Look-ahead Logic, which generates the carry-out

bits according to the above equations. The 4-bit adder can then be built by

using 4 Partial Full Adders and the Carry Look-ahead logic block. The complete

architecture is as follows:

The disadvantage of the carry-lookahead adder is that the carry

logic is getting quite complicated for more than 4 bits. For that reason,

carry-look-ahead adders are usually implemented as 4-bit modules and are used in

a hierarchical structure to realize adders that have multiples of 4 bits.

**hts**- Tổng số bài gửi : 206

Cảm ơn : 2

Join date : 26/06/2009

Age : 30

Đến từ : Tay Ninh Province

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